Stages of Cancer

Cancer is a progressive disease which develops over time by the accumulation of harmful mutations in genes controlling normal growth and development. At an early stage, when the cancer cell has one or two mutations there is no abnormality detected. As the cells divide and multiply they develop into a pre-cancerous lesion.

  • Stage-1: If undetected or left untreated they develop into a tumor called as Localized.

  • Stage-2: This tumor then grows and spreads into nearby lymph nodes which is known as Early Locally Advanced.

  • Stage-3: If left untreated spreads into more lymph nodes which is known as Late Locally Advanced.

  • Stage-4: The tumor then advances and spreads to other organs by a process known as Metastasis.

The earlier the cancer is detected the higher the chances of cure. If cancer is detected at pre-cancerous, stage 1 and 2, the chances of curing with appropriate treatments are high. If detected late at advanced stages 3 and 4, it needs personalized cancer biology analysis of a patient and right treatment options for longer survival rates. Subject matter experts suggest regular cancer check-ups after 35 years of age for early detection and right treatments, particularly women for breast and gynaecological cancers and others with smoking and alcohol lifestyles.

OncoDynamix Lifesciences has developed advanced screening technologies to screen cancer tissues from different stages of cancer to identify the appropriate treatments for a patient with a specific cancer.

Author:Ramesh Jayaraman-Chief Scientific Officer, OncoDynamiX Lifesciences.


  • American Association of Cancer Research, Cancer Progress Report, 2021